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fees were charged) it is safer to conclude that the earliest " gram-
matici" were simply private teachers in the houses of the great
families.    (2) Sometime about 190 B.C. came a sharp reaction
against everything Greek, due mainly to political circumstances.
This manifested itself in the educational sphere not only in the
treatise of Cato, to which reference has already been made, but
also in the action taken by the Senate at different times to curb
the activities of the Greek teachers.   In 173 B.C. two Epicurean
teachers were expelled from the city " because they propound the
doctrine of pleasure."    Twelve years later the Senate decreed
still more comprehensively that no philosophers or rhetoricians
should be tolerated at Rome.   (3) The anti-Greek reaction was
short-lived.    From the time of Andronicus and Ennius, Latin
literature, either translated from the Greek or following Greek
models, had been growing in extent, and by the middle of the
Second Century there was a very general appreciation of literature
among the upper classes which led to the institution of " grammar"
schools in spite of official disapproval.   The actual impulse to the
systematic teaching of literature is attributed by Suetonius to the
recitations and lectures given by Crates of Mallos, the head of the
Pergamene school, when detained in Rome by a broken leg, about
167 B.C. But though Greek literature was the main subject studied
at first, a patriotic desire to make the most of all that was good in
the educational tradition of Rome had been awakened.   " Listen
to me," Cicero makes Scipio say in the Republic, " as one not
wholly ignorant of Greek ways and yet not inclined to prefer
them to our own traditions.   Thanks to my father, I got a liberal
education, and from childhood I have sought eagerly to instruct
myself.   Nevertheless, experience and home education have done
more to make me what I am than books."*   It was the same
spirit, taking another form, that made L. /Elius Stilo, a scholarly
Roman knight, establish the first Latin grammar school about the
beginning of the First Century B.C., and that led to the institution
of the schools of Latin rhetoric which came under the disapproba-
tion of the Censors as harmful innovations in 92 B.C.   From this
time onward Latin literature and rhetoric were taught as well as
Greek, and became increasingly important branches of instruction.
The outcome was a system of education that was Greek in form,
but Roman in content.